Kinds of Sentences-English Grammar lessons notes.

Kinds of Sentences
Based on Meaning

A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. It consists of a subject and a predicate.
We classify sentences into four kinds based on the meaning they convey-assertive, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory.
Assertive (declarative) sentences make statements. Examples are:
Her sister is in college.
Her name is not in the team.

Assertive sentences may be categorized into-affirmative and Negative

Affirmative sentences have an affirmative meaning. Examples are:
They go to school.
I am feeling hungry.

Negative sentences have a negative meaning. They use negative words. Examples are:
No one can predict the final outcome
He was never interested in sports.
There is no good playground.

Interrogative sentences ask question. Examples are:
Do you play tennis?
Where is the manager?
Have you ever seen this man?

Imperative sentences give instructions of many kinds like order, command, request, entreaty etc. ‘You’ is the subject of the sentences. Examples are:
Stop it at once.
Call the witness
Please pass the circular.
Have some pity.

Exclamatory sentences express strong feelings of joy, grief, warning, concern, and fear. The examples are:
Hurrah! We have done it!
Alas! The leader is no more!
Beware! There is pothole in front!
Oh dear! You have fever!
Help! There is a thief in room!

Exercise based on lesson-1
Read the sentence and below and say whether there are assertive, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory.
They have invited us.
What a shame!
Stop it.
She does not like knitting.
Please pass it on.
If only I could finish it in time!
This is not enough.
Nobody was happy with him.
He has only done two projects.
Is this large enough?
Oh that I were Miss Universe!
Id this story true
She was waiting for the bus.
Please note it down.
The parrot is a beautiful bird.
Lesson-2
Transformation of sentences
The form of a sentence can be changed without changing the meaning. This process is called transformation of sentences.
Examples:
How beautiful this rose is! (exclamatory sentence)
This rose is very beautiful. (assertive sentence)
Similarly
The baby looks very cute. (assertive sentence)
How cute the baby looks! (exclamatory sentence)
You are very kind. (assertive sentence)
How kind of you! (exclamatory sentence)
And
This is his book. (assertive sentence)
Is this his book? (interrogative sentence)
You are in the team. (assertive sentence)
Are you in the team? (interrogative sentence)
Exercise based on lesson-2
Transform these exclamatory sentence into assertive.
Ah! What a lovely day it is!
Hush! The baby is asleep!
Help! Somebody is hiding behind the curtain.
Good heavens! What a nightmarish experience it was!

Transform these assertive sentences in exclamatory sentences.
This is indeed shameful.
It was a fantastic feat.
You have passed the test.
I wish he were here today.
Transform these assertive sentences into interrogative sentence.
She can run fast.
The child does not sleep well.
He is a chartered accountant.
The watchman opened the gate.
Lesson-3
Transformation form assertive into negative sentences
In case of the verb ‘to be’ (is, am, are, was, were), the verb is followed by the word ‘not’. Examples: Asif is acting in the school play. (affirmative sentece)
Asif is not acting in the school play. (negative sentence)

The negative ‘not’ is used in case of the verb ‘have’, ‘has’ and ‘had’.
Examples: Ayesha has got the book. (affirmative sentece)
Rabia has not got the book. (negative sentence)

In the case of auxiliary verbs, ‘not’ is used between the auxiliary and the main verb. In case of more than one auxiliary verb, the ‘not’ is used after the first auxiliary.
Examples:
Wahab is swimming well. (affirmative sentence)
Wahab is not swimming well. (negative sentece)
They have been playing hockey. (affirmative sentence)
They have not been playing hockey. (negative sentence)

We use an antonym of a noun or adjective in the sentence to make it negative. We use ‘not’ sometimes if we use antonym. Example:
He is a lucky man. (Assertive sentence)
He is an unlucky man. (negative sentence)
She made a quick exit. (assertive sentece)
She did not make a slow exit. (negative sentence)

Exercise based on Lesson-3
Transform these sentences into negative sentences using ‘not’ on appropriate place.
Asif is always busy.
You are planning to go.
They have paid the money.
She will have to buy new house.
My uncle will be waiting for me.
Transform these affirmative sentences into negative sentences. Use the antonym of the word in bold and make other necessary changes.
It was an unwelcome development.
This is a temporary solution.
He is an illiterate person.
He seems to be a foreigner.
This slice of bread is stale.


The End

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